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A device driver is a system component that contains code specific to a particular device (mouse, keyboard, network card, etc). The device drivers are, in general, developed by the device manufacturers or by work teams within the operating system developers (for device drivers that abide to well documented standards, such as keyboards and mice).
A major problem in the acceptance of operating systems based on Free, Libre and Open Source Software is the lack of manufacturer-provided device drivers. Due to this shortcoming, it is usually easier to employ newer devices with closed-source operating systems.
An usual way to solve this conundrum is to resort reverse engineering, a process in which the practitioner will study the device driver provided by the manufacturer in order to get insights about its functioning and then write a similar device driver based on Free Software.
In clean-room reverse engineering, to avoid legal issues, the process of reverse engineering is divided into two independent teams. One team works with the closed-source operating system and the device driver as supplied by the manufacturer. This team generates documentation regarding the data flow between the computer and the device, using special-purpose snooping programs or even special hardware devices. The second team will then use the documentation produced by the first team to write a device driver for a specific Free Software-based operating system. The produced documentation, of course, can be used to produce device drivers for multiple operating systems.
In this project, we are looking into the feasibility of automating the first stage of clean-room reverse engineering. We are looking into interacting with the closed-source operating system in an automated manner and analyze the data flow between the device and the computer. We have so far decided to focus on USB-based wireless network devices under GNU/Linux. This combination of devices and operating system are of practical importance due to their widespread availability and somewhat lacking support under the operating system of choice.
In the system we are building, an inference module decides which type of interaction to engage automatically within the closed-source operating system and then records the result of the said interaction as the data flow between the device driver and the physical device. With a collection of such data flows, we seek to infer an explaining model of the functioning of the device driver and then use such model as input to a natural language generation system.
- Nouveau (NVdia cards device driver), http://nouveau.freedesktop.org/wiki/REnouveau REnouveau project" class="wiki wikinew text-danger tips">http://nouveau.freedesktop.org/wiki/REnouveau REnouveau project, data dumps: http://nouveau.freedesktop.org/tests/
- Local crawl: http://www.duboue.net/download/all-nouveau.freedesktop.org.tar.bz2
- REnouveau documentation: http://www.ping.de/sites/koala/
- Linux Journal article "Writing a Simple USB Driver"
- Learning how to reverse engineer a Windows USB driver: the Luxeed LED keyboard
- Linux drivers needed for 802.11 cards
- Reverse Engineering of Binary Device Drivers with RevNIC, Vitaly Chipounov and George Candea, in Proc. 5th ACM SIGOPS/EuroSys European Conference on Computer Systems (EuroSys), Paris France, April 2010
- Blackhat USA 2009: Reverse Engineering by Crayon
- USB Snoop, for Windows XP
- Kernel Trap on Reverse Engineering Wireless Drivers
- (Wednesday, March 3, 2010) How to write a Network Driver in Linux
- Linux Journal article "Writing a Linux Driver" in 1998
Present: DrDub, Gainlo
Looking at REnouveau.
We should define an input language for the commands sent to the graphics card plus a language for the modifications made to the memory of the device.
These languages can be obtained automatically, using the type of techniques for unsupervised grammar induction.
- all tests for one graphics card
- same test across different graphic cards
- this task might produce an output of value to the community
- We will do the same-test-across-cards first
- We then contact nouveau and see if there's value continuing that line of work
- We will acquire a WN111 Netgear Wireless USB concurrently and see if we pursue that path if the nouevau approach doesn't work well