by Niels Schutte (Dublin Institute of Technology Dublin, Ireland) and Nina Dethlefs (University of Bremen, Germany)
They identified three issues:
- Step-by-step instructions, improved with high-level instructions for already visited places.
- Lack of motivation, improved with look-ahead information.
- Immediate replanning on errors, improved with grace period for errors.
They used low-level/high-level strategies as GIVE 1 systems.
To obtain high-level planning, they use a variation of spatial chunking, a successful method for guiding humans in wayfinding (Klippel et al., 2009).
Referring expressions for rooms "the room with the chair". They'll name the room on entrance and also remind the user they have been there before. Their algorithm used all the objects and that made the descriptions too long. Their approach needs to find the best landmark (using the work from Raubal and Winter (2002) and Sorrows and Hirtle, 1999).
Referring expressions for objects, place the object spatially (third button from the left, etc). Always include color.
Motivating bits made the texts too long.
- Heriberto Cuayahuitl, Nina Dethlefs, Kai-Florian Richter, Thora Tenbrink, and John Bateman. 2010. A dialogue system for indoor wayfinding using textbased natural language. In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Intelligent Text Processing and Computational Linguistics (CICLing), Iasi, Romania.
- Alexander Klippel, Stefan Hansen, Kai-Florian Richter, and Stephan Winter. 2009. Urban granularities - a data structure for cognitively ergonomic route directions. GeoInformatica, 13(2):223–247.
- Martin Raubal and Stephan Winter. 2002. Enriching wayfinding instructions with local landmarks. In Max Egenhofer and David Mark, editors, Geographic Information Science - Second International Conference GIScience 2002, pages 243–259, Berlin. Springer. LNCS 2478.
- Molly E. Sorrows and Stephen C. Hirtle. 1999. The nature of landmarks for real and electronic spaces. In Christian Freksa and David M. Mark, editors, Spatial Information Theory, pages 37–50, Berlin. Springer. LNCS 1661.